References on 4+1 Architectural Views (OOAD/UML)

"The 4+1 View Model of Architecture", by Philippe Krutchen, IEEE Software,  November 1995 - One of the definitive works on this topic.  This is available on-line via the IEEE's Computer Society website at in the Digital Library.  It is also available thru the ACM's digital library at  You may also be able to find PDF scans of this document by doing a Google - especially of .edu sites since it is so often included as a course handout.

"Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond" by Clements et al, 2003. Covers the more general topic of documenting software architectures but includes discussion on using UML, the 4+1 Views, and related topics.  See

"Architectural manifesto: Designing software architectures, Part 5: Introducing the 4+1 view model" by Mikko Kontio, published on IBM developerWorks, 02 Feb 2005 - This is in the midst of a series on wireless development but still provides a good 1-2 page summary of the 4+1 views. See:

The "Handbook of Software Architecture" at by Grady Booch. Includes a 2004 presentation on software architecture that discusses software architecture in general and includes several slides on the 4+1 views.  See:


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